Malaria

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  1. 00:00 Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease, that affects humans and other animals.
  2. 00:06 It causes symptoms that typically include, fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches.
  3. 00:13 In severe cases, Malaria can cause jaundice, seizures, coma, or death.
  4. 00:19 Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.
  5. 00:26 If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease, months later.
  6. 00:32 In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms.
  7. 00:39 This partial resistance disappears over months, to years, if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.
  8. 00:47 Malaria is caused by single-celled microorganisms of the Plasmodium group.
  9. 00:53 The disease is most commonly spread by an infected female, Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's saliva, into a person's blood.
  10. 01:04 The parasites travel in the blood, to the liver, where they mature and reproduce. Five species of the parasite Plasmodium can infect and be spread by humans,
  11. 01:16 Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood, using blood films,
  12. 01:23 or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests,
  13. 01:27 The risk of disease can be reduced, by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets, and insect repellents,
  14. 01:35 or with mosquito control measures, such as spraying insecticides, and draining standing water.
  15. 01:42 Several medications are available to prevent malaria in travellers to areas where the disease is common.
  16. 01:49 Occasional doses of the combination medication sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine, are recommended in infants, and pregnancy after the first trimester, in areas with high rates of malaria.
  17. 02:01 Despite a need, no effective malaria vaccine exists, although efforts to develop one are ongoing.
  18. 02:08 The recommended treatment for malaria is a combination of antimalarial medications, that includes an artemisinin.
  19. 02:16 The second medication may be either mefloquine, lumefantrine, or sulfadoxine pyrimethamine.
  20. 02:23 Quinine, along with doxycycline, may be used if an artemisinin is not available.
  21. 02:29 It is recommended that in areas where the disease is common, malaria is confirmed before treatment is started, due to concerns of increasing drug resistance.
  22. 02:39 The disease is widespread in the Ttropical and subtropical regions, in a broad band around the equator with 216 million cases in 2016, resulting in an estimated 445,000 to 731,000 deaths. Approximately 90% of both cases, and deaths, occurred in Africa.
  23. 03:00 Rates of disease decreased by 37% between the years 2000 and 2015, but increased from 2014, during which there were 198 million cases.
  24. 03:11 Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, and has a major negative effect on economic development.
  25. 03:19 For instance, in Africa, it is estimated to result in losses of US$12 billion a year, due to increased healthcare costs, lost ability to work, and negative effects on tourism.